Different Water Softening Methods

H20 aka water is a blessing on our planet. It is a vital reason for life on Earth. Do you know DiHydrogen Monoxide (DHMO) exists in liquid form only because our planet is at the right distance from the sun?  Guess what, DHMO is nothing but the chemical name of water.

70 percent of the human body constitutes of water for proper functioning. It is in the innate form which has been emerged from different means like elevated regions, polar ice caps or evaporation. It is distinguished into diverse types.  

To get the right information regarding water purification you need to understand the water kind and hardness first. This will lead you towards the root of your problem that is causing hardness of water and so that it can be treated.

Stay tuned to this page to know about different types of water and Water Softening methods.  To know more about Water Softening visit the “link

Types of Water:

Mainly water is segmented into five kinds. They are:

Brackish water:  

Water containing salinity between 1% to 2. 5% is considered as brackish water. It is a state which has sodium chloride less than seawater.


Naturally occurring water on the surface of Earth which has less than 1% sodium chloride is fresh water. Only 2.75% of water is present on the globe out of which two-thirds is in a frozen state. Freshwater is further sub categorized in two categories i.e. hard and soft water.


Generally seawater contains 3. 5% of salinity. Although the percentage may vary in some areas as per dilution due to fresh water.

Distilled water:

Removal of impurities after water distillation is known as distilled water.


Any water that is left after the purification process is wastewater containing impure water.

Kinds of Water as per Usability:

  • Hard water
  • Soft water

Soft water:

Natural or treated water containing minerals inaccurate amount which is usable is soft water.

Hard water:

Water containing a high amount of calcium and magnesium is hard water. When soap or detergent is used it does not form lather immediately needs softening. Let’s check the solution for this problem. However, there are two types of hardness: Permanent and Temporary hardness. Temporary hardness can be removed by boiling but permanent needs to be solved via the softening process.

Various Hard Water Softening Methods:

  • Boiling: By boiling, sodium bicarbonate is decomposed and evaporated. The water left is soft water. This is done for the removal of temporary hardness.

  • Adding Slaked Lime: Ca (OH) 2 Slaked lime is added for removal of temporary hardness. This water is good for washing clothes, utensils, and household works.

  • Washing Soda: Calcium and magnesium of hard water react with sodium carbonate to produce insoluble carbonates. Now, water has soluble safe carbonates.
  • Calgon Process: Water softening through complex sodium salts is called Calgon process. Sodium ions displace the hardness and later soft water is released.
  • Permutit Process (Ion Exchange Process):  This is a widely used water softening process that is typically used in households. Sodium ions resins are beaded in the water processor that exchanges sodium ions via CA and Mg. These resins are mainly used in laundry detergents. Resins are also available for removal of carbonate, bicarbonate and sulfate ions.

  • Chelating Agents: Chelators are chemical agents that are used for water softening. Many shampoos and food preservatives contain them. For detergents, citric acid is used for chelation. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) is a common synthetic chelator agent.
  • Reverse Osmosis: Latest technology that is deployed on a large scale to serve household for domestic purpose. This is a natural process which uses a partly porous crust to eradicate ions, molecules and larger particles making water drinkable.

  • Distillation and rainwater: By distillation calcium and magnesium can be removed but it is costly and inappropriate when water is needed in large amount.

Rainwater is naturally distilled water that involves process like evaporation, condensation, and precipitation.


Softened water replaced by sodium ions is not suitable for irrigation as it leads to alkali soils. Know about alkali soils. For this, traditional water softening methods have opted.

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